Lathe is a machine that mainly uses a turning tool to turn a rotating workpiece. Lathes, reamers, reamers, taps, dies and knurling tools can also be used for machining on lathes. Lathes are mainly used to machine shafts, discs, sleeves and other workpieces with rotating surfaces. They are the most widely used type of machine tool in mechanical manufacturing and repair factories.
1. The “bow lathe” of ancient pulleys and arched rods. As early as in ancient Egypt, people had invented the technology of turning a piece of wood with a knife while rotating the wood around its central axis. At first, people used two standing timbers as scaffolds to set up the wood to be turned, used the elasticity of the branches to roll the ropes to the wood, pulled the rope by hand or foot to turn the wood, and carried the cutter to cut. This ancient method gradually evolved and developed into two or three rounds of rope on a pulley. The rope was hung on a bow-shaped elastic rod. The bow was pulled back and forth to rotate the object to be turned. This is the "bow lathe".
2, the medieval crankshaft, flywheel transmission "bicycle." In the Middle Ages, it was designed a "pedal lathe" that used a foot pedal to rotate a crankshaft and drive a flywheel, and then transmitted it to the main shaft to make it rotate. In the middle of the 16th century, a French designer named Besson designed a lathe for screwing a tool with a screw-screw. Unfortunately, this type of lathe was not popularized.
3. In the 18th century, a bedside box and a chuck were born. In the 18th century, it was also designed to use a pedal and connecting rod to rotate the crankshaft, which can store rotational kinetic energy on a flywheel, and developed from a direct rotating workpiece to a rotating headstock. The headstock is a Hold the chuck of the workpiece.
4. In 1797, the Englishman Mosley invented an epoch-making lathe with a precision lead screw and interchangeable gears. Mozley was born in 1771. At the age of 18, he was the inventor Brammer's right-hand man. It is said that Brammer had been working as a farmer before, but at the age of 16, he had to be disabled due to an accident and he had to be diverted to a less mobile woodworking job. His first invention was a flush toilet in 1778. Mozley began to help Brammer design hydraulic presses and other machinery until he was 26 years old. He left Brammer because Brammer brutally rejected what Moritz proposed. Wages increase to 30 shillings per week or more. In the year when Mosley left Brammer, he made the first threading lathe. This is an all-metal lathe with tool holders and tailstock that can move along two parallel rails. The guide surface of the guide rail is triangular and drives the screw rod to move the tool holder laterally when the main shaft rotates. This is the main mechanism that modern lathes have, and can use this lathe to make precision metal screws of any pitch. Three years later, Mozley built a more complete lathe in his own workshop. The gears on top of each other could be changed to change the feed rate and the pitch of the thread being machined. In 1817, another Englishman, Roberts, used a four-stage pulley and back wheel mechanism to change the spindle speed. Soon, larger lathes came out and made great contributions to the invention of steam engines and other machinery.
5. The birth of all kinds of special lathes In order to increase the degree of automation of mechanization, in 1845, Fitch of the United States invented the turret lathe; in 1848, the United States appeared the turning wheel lathe; in 1873, Spencer of the United States made a single axis. Automatic lathes, and soon he also made a three-axis automatic lathe; at the beginning of the 20th century, a lathe with a gearbox driven by a separate motor appeared. Due to the invention of high-speed tool steel and the application of electric motors, the lathes have been continuously improved and finally reached a modern level of high speed and high precision. After World War I, various high-efficiency automatic lathes and specialized lathes developed rapidly due to the needs of arms, automobiles, and other machinery industries. In order to improve the productivity of small batches of workpieces, lathes with hydraulic profiling devices were promoted at the end of the 40's. At the same time, multi-tool lathes have also been developed. In the mid-1950s, program control lathes with punched cards, latch plates and dials were developed. CNC technology began to be used in lathes in the 1960s and developed rapidly after the 1970s.
6. The lathes are divided into multiple types depending on the purpose and function. The general lathe has a wide range of machining objects, and the adjustment range of the spindle rotation speed and the feed amount is large, and can process the inner and outer surfaces, end faces, and internal and external threads of the workpiece. This type of lathe is mainly operated manually by the workers and has low production efficiency. It is suitable for single parts, small batch production and repair workshops. The turret lathe and rotary lathe have a turret tool holder or a back knife holder which can hold a plurality of tools, and can be used by a worker in order to complete a variety of processes using a single tool in one set-up of a workpiece, and is suitable for mass production. The automatic lathe can automatically complete the multi-step processing of small and medium-sized workpieces according to certain procedures, and can automatically load and unload materials, and repeat processing of the same batch of workpieces, which is suitable for mass production and mass production. Multi-tool semi-automatic lathes have single-axis, multi-axis, horizontal and vertical points. The single-axis horizontal layout is similar to that of ordinary lathes, but the two sets of tool holders are mounted on the front and rear or upper and lower sides of the spindle to process discs, rings, and shafts. The productivity is improved by 3 to 5 times compared to conventional lathes. The copying lathe can automatically follow the shape and size of the template or sample to complete the processing cycle of the workpiece. It is suitable for small batches and batch production of more complex shaped workpieces, and the productivity is 10 to 15 times higher than that of the ordinary lathe. There are multi-turret, multi-axis, chuck, vertical and other types. The spindle of the vertical lathe is perpendicular to the horizontal plane, the workpiece is clamped on a horizontal rotary table, and the tool holder moves on the cross beam or the column. Suitable for machining larger, heavier, difficult to install on the general lathe, generally divided into two categories: single column and double column. While the tooth turning lathe is being turned, the tool holder performs a radial reciprocating motion periodically, and is used for the shaping tooth surfaces of the fork-lift milling cutters, hobs and the like. Usually with a grinding attachment, a small grinding wheel driven by a separate motor grinds the tooth surface. A special lathe is a lathe used to process a specific surface of a certain type of workpiece, such as a crankshaft lathe, a camshaft lathe, a wheel lathe, an axle lathe, a roll lathe, and a steel lathe lathe. Combined lathes are mainly used for turning machining, but after adding some special components and accessories, they can also be machined for boring, milling, drilling, inserting, grinding, etc., with the feature of “one machine with multiple powers” and suitable for construction vehicles, ships or mobile vehicles. Repair work on the repair station.