A car uses 2,000 to 3,000 springs, and the relationship between the car and the spring is strong. A typical type used in automotive internal combustion engines is a spring that moves the intake and exhaust valves according to the cam shape of the camshaft, referred to as a "valve spring" or "valve spring." At about 120 ° C, even if the oil is stretched 100 million times, it is required to be fatigue-fractured, and further miniaturization and weight reduction are always required . Among the springs, the valve spring can be said to be the spring used in the harshest environments . In order to meet the conditions of use, the shape and line spacing section shape have been specially designed . With regard to materials, steel wires with tensile strengths in excess of 2000 Pascals have been standardized and used as valve spring materials and are "the most widely used mass-produced materials for high quality springs .
Leaf spring for off-road vehicle suspension
Various springs are also used for the suspension of the vehicle, which supports the vehicle body while holding the wheel and reduces the rush from the road surface. The most widely used suspension springs are compression coil springs, and many of the light-weight compact cars are used. Laminate springs are heavy and heavy, but due to their high load carrying capacity, they are used in trucks, buses, and off-road vehicles. Although air springs have advantages such as height adjustment and ride comfort, they are expensive and are used in buses and luxury cars . The torsion bar is the main suspension spring of the Formula 1 car . In order to suppress the roll body of the roll, the torsion bar from a small car to a large truck is widely used.
The railway car with the body removed. The shaft spring (coil spring) is located next to the wheel. The two black rubber doors in the middle of the trolley are pillow springs (air springs).
The suspension system of a railway vehicle consists of two springs, a pincushion spring and an axial spring. A pincushion spring is a spring that exists between a body and a railway vehicle, and mainly uses an air spring. By using an air spring, the height of the body can be maintained while obtaining a soft spring constant. The shaft spring is a spring located between the bogie and the wheel pair, mainly using a coil spring